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This paper presents a method for acquiring dense nonrigid shape and deformation from a single monocular depth sensor. We focus on modeling the human hand, and assume that a single rough template model is available. We combine and extend existing work on model-based tracking, subdivision surface fitting, and mesh deformation to acquire detailed hand models from as few as 15 frames of depth data. We propose an objective that measures the error of fit between each sampled data point and a continuous model surface defined by a rigged control mesh, and uses as-rigid-as-possible (ARAP) regularizers to cleanly separate the model and template geometries. A key contribution is our use of a smooth model based on subdivision surfaces that allows simultaneous optimization over both correspondences and model parameters. This avoids the use of iterated closest point (ICP) algorithms which often lead to slow convergence. Automatic initialization is obtained using a regression forest trained to infer approximate correspondences. Experiments show that the resulting meshes model the user's hand shape more accurately than just adapting the shape parameters of the skeleton, and that the retargeted skeleton accurately models the user's articulations. We investigate the effect of various modeling choices, and show the benefits of using subdivision surfaces and ARAP regularization.
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