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This paper addresses the problem of assigning object class labels to image pixels. Following recent holistic formulations, we cast scene labeling as inference of a conditional random field (CRF) grounded onto superpixels. The CRF inference is specified as quadratic program (QP) with mutual exclusion (mutex) constraints on class label assignments. The QP is solved using a beam search (BS), which is well-suited for scene labeling, because it explicitly accounts for spatial extents of objects; conforms to inconsistency constraints from domain knowledge; and has low computational costs. BS gradually builds a search tree whose nodes correspond to candidate scene labelings. Successor nodes are repeatedly generated from a select set of their parent nodes until convergence. We prove that our BS efficiently maximizes the QP objective of CRF inference. Effectiveness of our BS for scene labeling is evaluated on the benchmark MSRC, Stanford Backgroud, PASCAL VOC 2009 and 2010 datasets.
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