TechTalks from event: Technical session talks from ICRA 2012

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Intelligent Manipulation Grasping

  • A Generalized Framework for Opening Doors and Drawers in Kitchen Environments Authors: Ruehr, Thomas; Sturm, Jürgen; Pangercic, Dejan; Beetz, Michael; Cremers, Daniel
    In this paper, we present a generalized framework for robustly operating previously unknown cabinets in kitchen environments. Our framework consists of the following four components: (1) a module for detecting both Lambertian and non-Lambertian (i.e. specular) handles, (2) a module for opening and closing novel cabinets using impedance control and for learning their kinematic models, (3) a module for storing and retrieving information about these objects in the map, and (4) a module for reliably operating cabinets of which the kinematic model is known. The presented work is the result of a collaboration of three PR2 beta sites. We rigorously evaluated our approach on 29 cabinets in five real kitchens located at our institutions. These kitchens contained 13 drawers, 12 doors, 2 refrigerators and 2 dishwashers. We evaluated the overall performance of detecting the handle of a novel cabinet, operating it and storing its model in a semantic map. We found that our approach was successful in 51.9% of all 104 trials. With this work, we contribute a well-tested building block of open-source software for future robotic service applications.
  • FCL: A General Purpose Library for Collision and Proximity Queries Authors: Pan, Jia; Chitta, Sachin; Manocha, Dinesh
    We present a new collision and proximity library that integrates several techniques for fast and accurate collision checking and proximity computation. Our library is based on hierarchical representations and designed to perform multiple proximity queries on different model representations. The set of queries includes discrete collision detection, continuous collision detection, separation distance computation and penetration depth estimation. The input models may correspond to triangulated rigid or deformable models and articulated models. Moreover, FCL can perform probabilistic collision checking between noisy point clouds that are captured using cameras or LIDAR sensors. The main benefit of FCL lies in the fact that it provides a unified interface that can be used by various applications. Furthermore, its flexible architecture makes it easier to implement new algorithms within this framework. The runtime performance of the library is comparable to state of the art collision and proximity algorithms. We demonstrate its performance on synthetic datasets as well as motion planning and grasping computations performed using a two-armed mobile manipulation robot.
  • Learning Organizational Principles in Human Environments Authors: Schuster, Martin Johannes; Jain, Dominik; Tenorth, Moritz; Beetz, Michael
    In the context of robotic assistants in human everyday environments, pick and place tasks are beginning to be competently solved at the technical level. The question of where to place objects or where to pick them up from, among other higher-level reasoning tasks, is therefore gaining practical relevance. In this work, we consider the problem of identifying the organizational structure within an environment, i.e. the problem of determining organizational principles that would allow a robot to infer where to best place a particular, previously unseen object or where to reasonably search for a particular type of object given past observations about the allocation of objects to locations in the environment. This problem can be reasonably formulated as a classification task. We claim that organizational principles are governed by the notion of similarity and provide an empirical analysis of the importance of various features in datasets describing the organizational structure of kitchens. For the aforementioned classification tasks, we compare standard classification methods, reaching average accuracies of at least 79% in all scenarios. We thereby show that ontology-based similarity measures are well-suited as highly discriminative features. We demonstrate the use of learned models of organizational principles in a kitchen environment on a real robot system, where the robot identifies a newly acquired item, determines a suitable location and then stores the item accordingly.
  • Using Manipulation Primitives for Brick Sorting in Clutter Authors: Gupta, Megha; Sukhatme, Gaurav
    This paper explores the idea of manipulation-aided perception and grasping in the context of sorting small objects on a tabletop. We present a robust pipeline that combines perception and manipulation to accurately sort Duplo bricks by color and size. The pipeline uses two simple motion primitives to manipulate the scene in ways that help the robot to improve its perception. This results in the ability to sort cluttered piles of Duplo bricks accurately. We present experimental results on the PR2 robot comparing brick sorting without the aid of manipulation to sorting with manipulation primitives that show the benefits of the latter, particularly as the degree of clutter in the environment increases.
  • A constraint-based programming approach to physical human-robot Interaction Authors: Borghesan, Gianni; Willaert, Bert; De Schutter, Joris
    Abstract— This work aims to extend the constraint-based formalism iTaSC for scenarios where physical human-robot interaction plays a central role, which is the case for e.g. surgical robotics, rehabilitation robotics and household robotics. To really exploit the potential of robots in these scenarios, it should be possible to enforce force and geometrical constraints in an easy and flexible way. iTaSC allows to express such constraints in different frames expressed in arbitrary spaces and to obtain control setpoints in a systematic way. In previous implementations of iTaSC, industrial velocity-controlled robots were considered. This work presents an extension of the iTaSC-framework that allows to take advantage of the back-drivability of a robot thus avoiding the use of force sensors. Then, as a case-study, the iTaSC-framework is used to formulate a (position-position) teleoperation scheme. The theoretical findings are experimentally validated using a PR2 robot.