Technical session talks from ICRA 2012
TechTalks from event: Technical session talks from ICRA 2012
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Perception for Autonomous Vehicles
Active Perception for Autonomous VehiclesPrecise perception of a vehicle's surrounding is crucial for safe autonomous driving. It requires a high sensor resolution and a large field of view. Active perception, i.e. the redirection of a sensor's focus of attention, is an approach to provide both. With active perception, however, the selection of an appropriate sensor orientation becomes necessary. This paper presents a method for determining the sensor orientation in urban traffic scenarios based on three criteria: the importance of traffic participants w.r.t. the current situation, the available information about traffic participants while considering alternative sensor orientations as well as sensor coverage of the vehicle's relevant surrounding area.
A Probabilistic Framework for Car Detection in Images using Context and ScaleDetecting cars in real-world images is an important task for autonomous driving, yet it remains unsolved. The system described in this paper takes advantage of context and scale to build a monocular single-frame image-based car detector that significantly outperforms the baseline. The system uses a probabilistic model to combine multiple forms of evidence for both context and scale to locate cars in a real-world image. We also use scale filtering to speed up our algorithm by a factor of 3.3 compared to the baseline. By using a calibrated camera and localization on a road map, we are able to obtain context and scale information from a single image without the use of a 3D laser. The system outperforms the baseline by an absolute 9.4% in overall average precision and 11.7% in average precision for cars smaller than 50 pixels in height, for which context and scale cues are especially important.
Real-Time Topometric LocalizationAutonomous vehicles must be capable of localizing even in GPS denied situations. In this paper, we propose a real-time method to localize a vehicle along a route using visual imagery or range information. Our approach is an implementation of topometric localization, which combines the robustness of topological localization with the geometric accuracy of metric methods. We construct a map by navigating the route using a GPS-equipped vehicle and building a compact database of simple visual and 3D features. We then localize using a Bayesian filter to match sequences of visual or range measurements to the database. The algorithm is reliable across wide environmental changes, including lighting differences, seasonal variations, and occlusions, achieving an average localization accuracy of 1 m over an 8 km route. The method converges correctly even with wrong initial position estimates solving the kidnapped robot problem.
SeqSLAM: Visual Route-Based Navigation for Sunny Summer Days and Stormy Winter NightsLearning and then recognizing a route, whether travelled during the day or at night, in clear or inclement weather, and in summer or winter is a challenging task for state of the art algorithms in computer vision and robotics. In this paper, we present a new approach to visual navigation under changing conditions dubbed SeqSLAM. Instead of calculating the single location most likely given a current image, our approach calculates the best candidate matching location within every local navigation sequence. Localization is then achieved by recognizing coherent sequences of these â€œlocal best matchesâ€. This approach removes the need for global matching performance by the vision front-end â€“ instead it must only pick the best match within any short sequence of images. The approach is applicable over environment changes that render traditional feature-based techniques ineffective. Using two car-mounted camera datasets we demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm and compare it to one of the most successful feature-based SLAM algorithms, FAB-MAP. The perceptual change in the datasets is extreme; repeated traverses through environments during the day and then in the middle of the night, at times separated by months or years and in opposite seasons, and in clear weather and extremely heavy rain. While the feature-based method fails, the sequence-based algorithm is able to match trajectory segments at 100% precision with recall rates of up to 60%.
Image Sequence Partitioning for Outdoor MappingMost of the existing appearance based topological mapping algorithms produce dense topological maps in which each image stands as a node in the topological graph. Sparser maps can be built by representing groups of visually similar images as nodes of a topological graph. In this paper, we present a sparse topological mapping framework which uses Image Sequence Partitioning (ISP) techniques to group visually similar images as topological graph nodes. We present four different ISP techniques and evaluate their performance. In order to take advantage of the afore mentioned maps, we make use of Hierarchical Inverted Files (HIF) which enable efficient hierarchical loop closure. Outdoor experimental results demonstrating the sparsity, efficiency and accuracy achieved by the combination of ISP and HIF in performing loop closure are presented.
Anytime Merging of Appearance Based MapsAppearance based maps are emerging as an important class of spatial representations for mobile robots. In this paper we tackle the problem of merging together two or more appearance based maps independently built by robots operating in the same environment. Noticing the lack of well accepted metrics to measure the performance of map merging algorithms, we propose to use algebraic connectivity as a metric to assess the advantage gained by merging multiple maps. Next, based on this criterion, we propose an anytime algorithm aiming to quickly identify the more advantageous parts to merge. The system we proposed has been fully implemented and tested in indoor scenarios and shows that our algorithm achieves a convenient tradeoff between accuracy and speed.