Technical session talks from ICRA 2012
TechTalks from event: Technical session talks from ICRA 2012
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A Compact Tactile Display Suitable for Integration in VR and TeleoperationHaptic feedback should integrate kinaesthetic and tactile feedback. However current haptic displays do not satisfy the stringent performance and design requirements for integration in teleoperation and VR. This work presents the development of a compact, high performance tactile display for the fingertip. The compact design, high performance, reliability, and simple connectivity of this display make it suitable for immediate integration in current VR and master-slave haptic systems. In terms of performance this display achieves an excellent combination of force, amplitude and spatiotemporal resolution at the tactors, surpassing the performance of devices of a similar footprint. Its operation is based on the display of surface shape to an area of the fingertip through a 4x4 array of vertically moving tactors. The tactors are spring loaded and are actuated remotely by dc motors through a flexible tendon transmission. This work presents the overall design, control and performance of the device. A preliminary analysis of the transmission system is presented and is used to compensate for output errors induced by component elasticity.
Risk-Sensitive Optimal Feedback Control for Haptic AssistanceWhile human behavior prediction can increase the capability of a robotic partner to generate anticipatory behavior during physical human robot interaction (pHRI), predictions in uncertain situations can lead to large disturbances for the human if they do not match the human intentions. In this paper, we present a risk-sensitive optimal feedback controller for haptic assistance. The human behavior is modeled using probabilistic learning methods and any unexpected disturbance is considered as a source of noise. The controller considers the inherent uncertainty of the probabilistic model and the process noise in the dynamics in order to adapt the behavior of the robot accordingly. The proposed approach is evaluated in situations with different uncertainties, process noise and risk-sensitivities in a 2 Degree-of-Freedom virtual reality setup.
Integration Framework for NASA NextGen Volumetric Cockpit Situation Display with Haptic FeedbackIn this paper, we present a framework for the integration of force feedback information in a NASA NextGen Volumetric Cockpit Situation Display (CSD). With the current CSD, the user retrieves operational information solely through visual displays and interacts with the CSD tools through using a mouse. The advanced capabilities of the CSD may require complex manipulation of information which may be difficult to perform with input devices found in todayâ€™s cockpits. Performance with the CSD could benefit from a new user input device and enhanced user feedback modalities that can be operated safely, effectively, and intuitively in a cockpit environment. In this work, we investigate the addition of force feedback in two key CSD tasks: object selection and route manipulation. Different force feedback models were applied to communicate guidance commands, such as collision avoidance and target contact. We also discuss the development of a GUI-based software interface to allow the integration of a haptic device for the CSD. A preliminary user study was conducted on a testbed system using the Novint Falcon force-feedback device. A full experiment, assessing the effectiveness and usability of the feedback model in the CSD, will be performed in the next phase of our research.
Wearable Haptic Device for Cutaneous Force and Slip Speed DisplayStable grasp is the result of sensorimotor regulation of forces, ensuring sufficient grip force and the integrity of the held object. Grasping with a prosthesis introduces the challenge of finding the appropriate forces given the engineered sensorimotor prosthetic interface. Excessive force leads to unnecessary energy use and possible damage to the object. In contrast, low grip forces lead to slippage. In order for a prosthetic hand to achieve a stable grasp, the haptic information provided to the prosthesis wearer needs to display these two antagonistic grasp metrics (force and slip) in a quantified way. We present the design and evaluation of a wearable single-actuator haptic device that relays multi-modal haptic information, such as grip force and slip speed. Two belts that are activated in a mutually exclusive manner by the rotation direction of a single motor exert normal force and tangential motion on the skin surface, respectively. The wearable haptic device is able to display normal forces as a tap frequency in the range of approximately 1.5-5.0~Hz and slip speed in the range of 50-200~mm/s. Within these values, users are able to identify at least four stimulation levels for each feedback modality, with short-term training.
Development of a Haptic Interface Using MR Fluid for Displaying Cutting Forces of Soft TissuesIn open abdominal surgical procedures, many surgical instruments, e.g., knives, cutting shears and clamps, are generally used. Therefore, a haptic interface should display reaction force of a soft biological tissue through such a surgical instrument. Simplest solution for this difficulty is that an actual instrument is mechanically mounted on the traditional haptic interface driven by servomotors. However, operators lose a sense of reality when they change the instrument since they must perform a procedure which is not required in actual surgery for attaching/detaching the instrument to/from the haptic interface. Therefore, a novel haptic interface using MR (Magneto-Rheological) fluid is developed in this research. Rheological property of MR fluid can be changed in a short time by applied magnetic flux density. By cutting the fluid using a surgical instrument, operators can feel resistance force as if they cut tissue. However, MR fluid cannot display large deformation of soft tissues since elastic region of MR fluid is small. Therefore, a container of the fluid is moved by a motion table driven by servomotors. In this paper, concept and design of the haptic interface and performance evaluations are described.
Six-Degree-Of-Freedom Haptic Simulation of Organ Deformation in Dental OperationsSix-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) haptic rendering is challenging when multi-region contacts occur between the graphic avatar of a haptic tool operated by a human user, which we call the graphic tool, and deformable objects. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach for deformation modeling based on a spring-sphere tree representation of deformable objects and a configuration-based constrained optimization method for determining the 6-dimensional configuration of the graphic tool and the contact force/torque response to the tool. This method conducts collision detection, deformation computation, and tool configuration optimization very efficiently based on the spring-sphere tree model, avoids inter-penetration, and maintains stability of haptic display without using virtual coupling. Experiments on typical dental operations are carried out to validate the efficiency and stability of the proposed method. The update rate of the haptic simulation loop is maintained at ~1kHz.