TechTalks from event: Technical session talks from ICRA 2012

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Minimally invasive interventions I

  • Design Requirements and Feasibility Study for a 3-DOF MRI-Compatible Robotic Device for MRI-Guided Prostate Intervention Authors: Bohren, Jonathan; Iordachita, Iulian; Whitcomb, Louis
    This paper reports the design requirements, practical challenges, and a preliminary design for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided, three degree-of-freedom (DOF) transrectal prostate intervention robot. We show the operational space constraints imposed by patient anatomy when performing transrectal prostate procedures in a magnetic resonance (MR) scanner bore, as determined by analyzing data from 12 patient procedures with a device. We also describe practical challenges arising in designing a compact actuated MR compatible needle placement robot for MRI-guided transrectal needle intervention in the prostate. We present a preliminary design which aims to improve upon previous un-actuated and partially-actuated devices with the addition of an actuated needle insertion module. Such an enhancement enables needle driving to take place inside the MR scanner bore and thereby may reduce the overall procedure time -- thus improving patient comfort and reducing likelyhood of needle targeting errors resulting from patient motion. We show that it is feasible to add such actuation while reducing the footprint of the device in accordance with the anatomical and MR scanner constraints and practical design requirements.
  • Visual and Force-Feedback Guidance for Robot-Assisted Interventions in the Beating Heart with Real-Time MRI Authors: Navkar, Nikhil Vishwas; Deng, Zhigang; Shah, Dipan J.; Bekris, Kostas E.; Tsekos, Nikolaos
    Robot-assisted surgical procedures are perpetually evolving due to potential improvement in patient treatment and healthcare cost reduction. Integration of an imaging modality intraoperatively further strengthens these procedures by incorporating the information pertaining to the area of intervention. Such information needs to be effectively rendered to the operator as a human-in-the-loop requirement. In this work, we propose a guidance approach that uses real-time MRI to assist the operator in performing robot-assisted procedure in a beating heart. Specifically, this approach provides both real-time visualization and force-feedback based guidance for maneuvering an interventional tool safely inside the dynamic environment of a heart's left ventricle. Experimental evaluation of the functionality of this approach was tested on a simulated scenario of transapical aortic valve replacement and it demonstrated improvement in control and manipulation by providing effective and accurate assistance to the operator in real-time.
  • Trans-Abdominal Active Magnetic Linkage for Robotic Surgery: Concept Definition and Model Assessment Authors: Di Natali, Christian; Ranzani, Tommaso; Simi, Massimiliano; Menciassi, Arianna; Valdastri, Pietro
    The novel concept of Trans-abdominal Active Magnetic Linkage for laparoendoscopic single site surgery has the potential to enable the deployment of a bimanual robotic platform trough a single laparoscopic incision. The main advantage of this approach consists in shifting the actuators outside the body of the patient, while transmitting a controlled robotic motion by magnetic field across the abdomen without the need for dedicated incisions. An actuation mechanism based on this approach can be comprised of multiple anchoring and actuation units, mixed depending upon the specific needs. A static model providing anchoring and actuation forces and torques available at the internal side of the magnetic link was developed to provide a tool to navigate among the many possibilities of such an open ended design approach. The model was assessed through bench top experiments, showing a maximum relative error of 4% on force predictions. An example of a single degree of freedom manipulator actuated with the proposed concept and compatible with a 12-mm access port is able to provide an anchoring force of 3.82 N and an actuation force of 2.95 N.
  • Cable Length Estimation for a Compliant Surgical Manipulator Authors: Segreti, Sean M.; Kutzer, Michael Dennis Mays; Murphy, Ryan Joseph; Armand, Mehran
    This paper presents a method for estimating drive cable length in an underactuated, hyper-redundant, snake-like manipulator. The continuum manipulator was designed for the surgical removal of osteolysis behind total hip arthroplasties. Two independently actuated cables in a pull-pull configuration control the compliant manipulator in a single plane. Using a previously developed kinematic model, we present a method for estimating drive cable displacement for a given manipulator configuration. This calibrated function is then inverted to explore the ability to achieve local manipulator configurations from prescribed drive cable displacements without the use of continuous visual feedback. Results demonstrate an effectiveness in predicting drive cable lengths from manipulator configurations. Preliminary results also show an ability to achieve manipulator configurations from prescribed cable lengths with reasonable accuracy without continuous visual feedback.
  • Towards a Compact Robotically Steerable Thermal Ablation Probe Authors: Graves, Carmen; Slocum, Alexander; Gupta, Rajiv; Walsh, Conor James
    The focus of this paper is on the design and evaluation of a robust drive mechanism intended to robotically steer a thermal ablation electrode or similar percutaneous instrument. We present the design of an improved screw-spline drive mechanism based on a profiled threaded shaft and nut that reduces the part count and simplifies manufacturing and assembly. To determine the optimal parameters for the profile shape, an analytical expression was derived that relates the tolerance between the nut and shaft to the angular backlash, which was validated using SolidWorks. We outline the forward kinematics of a steering mechanism that is based on the concept of substantially straightening a pre-curved Nitinol stylet by retracting it into a concentric outer cannula, and re-deploying it at a different position. This model was compared to data collected during targeting experiments performed in ex-vivo tissue samples where the distal tip of the stylet was repositioned in ex-vivo bovine tissue and the location of its distal tip was recorded with CT imaging. Results demonstrated that the drive mechanism operated robustly and targeting errors of less than 2mm were achieved.