TechTalks from event: Technical session talks from ICRA 2012

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Grasp Planning

  • On the Synthesis of Feasible and Prehensile Robotic Grasps Authors: Rosales Gallegos, Carlos; Suarez, Raul; Gabiccini, Marco; Bicchi, Antonio
    This work proposes a solution to the grasp synthesis problem, which consist of finding the best hand configuration to grasp a given object for a specific manipulation task while satisfying all the necessary constraints. This problem had been divided into sequential sub-problems, including contact region determination, hand inverse kinematics and force distribution, with the particular constraints of each step tackled independently. This may lead to unnecessary effort, such as when one of the problems has no solution given the output of the previous step as input. To overcome this issue, we present a kinestatic formulation of the grasp synthesis problem that introduces compliance both at the joints and the contacts. This provides a proper framework to synthesize a feasible and prehensile grasp by considering simultaneously the necessary grasping constraints, including contact reachability, object restraint, and force controllability. As a consequence, a solution of the proposed model results in a set of hand configurations that allows to execute the grasp using only a position controller. The approach is illustrated with experiments on a simple planar hand using two fingers and an anthropomorphic robotic hand using three fingers.
  • Pose Error Robust Grasping from Contact Wrench Space Metrics Authors: Weisz, Jonathan; Allen, Peter
    Grasp quality metrics which analyze the contact wrench space are commonly used to synthesize and analyze preplanned grasps. Preplanned grasping approaches rely on the robustness of stored solutions. Analyzing the robustness of such solutions for large databases of preplanned grasps is a limiting factor for the applicability of data driven approaches to grasping. In this work, we will focus on the stability of the widely used grasp wrench space epsilon quality metric over a large range of poses in simulation. We examine a large number of grasps from the Columbia Grasp Database for the Barrett hand. We find that in most cases the grasp with the most robust force closure with respect to pose error for a particular object is not the grasp with the highest epsilon quality. We demonstrate that grasps can be reranked grasps by an estimate of the stability of their epsilon quality. We find that the grasps ranked best by this method are successful more often in physical experiments than grasps ranked best by the epsilon quality.
  • Navigation Functions Learning from Experiments: Application to Anthropomorphic Grasping Authors: Filippidis, Ioannis; Kyriakopoulos, Kostas; Artemiadis, Panagiotis
    This paper proposes a method to construct Navigation Functions (NF) from experimental trajectories in an unknown environment. We want to approximate an unknown obstacle function and then use it within an NF. When navigating the same destinations with the experiments, this NF should produce the same trajectories as the experiments. This requirement is equivalent to a partial differential equation (PDE). Solving the PDE yields the unknown obstacle function, expressed with spline basis functions.We apply this new method to anthropomorphic grasping, producing automatic trajectories similar to the observed ones. The grasping experiments were performed for a set of different objects, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allows reduction of the configuration space dimension, where the learning NF method is then applied.
  • Toward Cloud-Based Grasping with Uncertainty in Shape: Estimating Lower Bounds on Achieving Force Closure with Zero-Slip Push Grasps Authors: Kehoe, Ben; Berenson, Dmitry; Goldberg, Ken
    This paper explores how Cloud Computing can facilitate grasping with shape uncertainty. We consider the most common robot gripper: a pair of thin parallel jaws, and a class of objects that can be modeled as extruded polygons. We model a conservative class of push-grasps that can enhance object alignment. The grasp planning algorithm takes as input an approximate object outline and Gaussian uncertainty around each vertex and center of mass. We define a grasp quality metric based on a lower bound on the probability of achieving force closure. We present a highly-parallelizable algorithm to compute this metric using Monte Carlo sampling. The algorithm uses Coulomb frictional grasp mechanics and a fast geometric test for conservative conditions for force closure. We run the algorithm on a set of sample shapes and compare the grasps with those from a planner that does not model shape uncertainty. We report computation times with single and multi-core computers and sensitivity analysis on algorithm parameters. We also describe physical grasp experiments using the Willow Garage PR2 robot.
  • Combined Grasp and Manipulation Planning As a Trajectory Optimization Problem Authors: Horowitz, Matanya; Burdick, Joel
    Many manipulation planning problems involve several related sub-problems, such as the selection of grasping points on an object, choice of hand posture, and determination of the arm’s configuration and evolving trajectory. Traditionally, these planning sub-problems have been handled separately, potentially leading to sub-optimal, or even infeasible, combinations of the individually determined solutions. This paper formulates the combined problem of grasp contact selection, grasp force optimization, and manipulator arm/hand trajectory planning as a problem in optimal control. That is, the locally optimal trajectory for the manipulator, hand mechanism, and contact locations are determined during the pre-grasping, grasping, and subsequent object transport phase. Additionally, a barrier function approach allows for non-feasible grasps to be optimized, enlarging the region of convergence for the algorithm. A simulation of a simple planar object manipulation task is used to illustrate and validate the approach.