TechTalks from event: CVPR 2014 Oral Talks

Orals 4A : Computational Photography: Sensing and Display

  • Diffuse Mirrors: 3D Reconstruction from Diffuse Indirect Illumination Using Inexpensive Time-of-Flight Sensors Authors: Felix Heide, Lei Xiao, Wolfgang Heidrich, Matthias B. Hullin
    The functional difference between a diffuse wall and a mirror is well understood: one scatters back into all directions, and the other one preserves the directionality of reflected light. The temporal structure of the light, however, is left intact by both: assuming simple surface reflection, photons that arrive first are reflected first. In this paper, we exploit this insight to recover objects outside the line of sight from second-order diffuse reflections, effectively turning walls into mirrors. We formulate the reconstruction task as a linear inverse problem on the transient response of a scene, which we acquire using an affordable setup consisting of a modulated light source and a time-of-flight image sensor. By exploiting sparsity in the reconstruction domain, we achieve resolutions in the order of a few centimeters for object shape (depth and laterally) and albedo. Our method is robust to ambient light and works for large room-sized scenes. It is drastically faster and less expensive than previous approaches using femtosecond lasers and streak cameras, and does not require any moving parts.
  • Fourier Analysis on Transient Imaging with a Multifrequency Time-of-Flight Camera Authors: Jingyu Lin, Yebin Liu, Matthias B. Hullin, Qionghai Dai
    A transient image is the optical impulse response of a scene which visualizes light propagation during an ultra-short time interval. In this paper we discover that the data captured by a multifrequency time-of-flight (ToF) camera is the Fourier transform of a transient image, and identify the sources of systematic error. Based on the discovery we propose a novel framework of frequency-domain transient imaging, as well as algorithms to remove systematic error. The whole process of our approach is of much lower computational cost, especially lower memory usage, than Heide et al.'s approach using the same device. We evaluate our approach on both synthetic and real-datasets.
  • Transparent Object Reconstruction via Coded Transport of Intensity Authors: Chenguang Ma, Xing Lin, Jinli Suo, Qionghai Dai, Gordon Wetzstein
    Capturing and understanding visual signals is one of the core interests of computer vision. Much progress has been made w.r.t. many aspects of imaging, but the reconstruction of refractive phenomena, such as turbulence, gas and heat flows, liquids, or transparent solids, has remained a challenging problem. In this paper, we derive an intuitive formulation of light transport in refractive media using light fields and the transport of intensity equation. We show how coded illumination in combination with pairs of recorded images allow for robust computational reconstruction of dynamic two and three-dimensional refractive phenomena.
  • 3D Shape and Indirect Appearance by Structured Light Transport Authors: Matthew O'Toole, John Mather, Kiriakos N. Kutulakos
    We consider the problem of deliberately manipulating the direct and indirect light flowing through a time-varying, fully-general scene in order to simplify its visual analysis. Our approach rests on a crucial link between stereo geometry and light transport: while direct light always obeys the epipolar geometry of a projector-camera pair, indirect light overwhelmingly does not. We show that it is possible to turn this observation into an imaging method that analyzes light transport in real time in the optical domain, prior to acquisition. This yields three key abilities that we demonstrate in an experimental camera prototype: (1) producing a live indirect-only video stream for any scene, regardless of geometric or photometric complexity; (2) capturing images that make existing structured-light shape recovery algorithms robust to indirect transport; and (3) turning them into one-shot methods for dynamic 3D shape capture.
  • Shape-Preserving Half-Projective Warps for Image Stitching Authors: Che-Han Chang, Yoichi Sato, Yung-Yu Chuang
    This paper proposes a novel parametric warp which is a spatial combination of a projective transformation and a similarity transformation. Given the projective transformation relating two input images, based on an analysis of the projective transformation, our method smoothly extrapolates the projective transformation of the overlapping regions into the non-overlapping regions and the resultant warp gradually changes from projective to similarity across the image. The proposed warp has the strengths of both projective and similarity warps. It provides good alignment accuracy as projective warps while preserving the perspective of individual image as similarity warps. It can also be combined with more advanced local-warp-based alignment methods such as the as-projective-as-possible warp for better alignment accuracy. With the proposed warp, the field of view can be extended by stitching images with less projective distortion (stretched shapes and enlarged sizes).
  • Parallax-tolerant Image Stitching Authors: Fan Zhang, Feng Liu
    Parallax handling is a challenging task for image stitching. This paper presents a local stitching method to handle parallax based on the observation that input images do not need to be perfectly aligned over the whole overlapping region for stitching. Instead, they only need to be aligned in a way that there exists a local region where they can be seamlessly blended together. We adopt a hybrid alignment model that combines homography and content-preserving warping to provide flexibility for handling parallax and avoiding objectionable local distortion. We then develop an efficient randomized algorithm to search for a homography, which, combined with content-preserving warping, allows for optimal stitching. We predict how well a homography enables plausible stitching by finding a plausible seam and using the seam cost as the quality metric. We develop a seam finding method that estimates a plausible seam from only roughly aligned images by considering both geometric alignment and image content. We then pre-align input images using the optimal homography and further use content-preserving warping to locally refine the alignment. We finally compose aligned images together using a standard seam-cutting algorithm and a multi-band blending algorithm. Our experiments show that our method can effectively stitch images with large parallax that are difficult for existing methods.